Supplementary Material



Background: Health-related behavior patterns may affect health outcomes. However, there is little research for about health-related behavior patterns in Southeast Asia. The purpose of this study was to identify health-related behavior patterns among older adults in Indonesia and to examine the factors.

Methods: The data were obtained from the fifth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey collected in 2015. Adults who were age 60 or older were included (n = 2930). Health-related behaviors included smoking, physical activity, and dietary patterns. The data was analyzed using latent class analysis and logistic regression.

Results: Four classes each for older men were identified: smoking and high-calorie diet (20.8%), smoking and active (47.5%), nonsmoking (2.5%), and smoking and healthy diet (29.1%). Four classes for older women were also identified: high risk (8.8%), inactive (31.0%), moderate physical activity (37.7%), and healthy diet (22.5%). The related factors were different by gender.

Conclusion: Four lifestyles for older men and women respectively were identified. No completely healthy behavior group was identified. Gender differences imply that health inequality may exist. A gender-sensitive policy is suggested.