Supplementary Material

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Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major disease among the elderly in Japan. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of glycemic control and determine its associated factors among elderly patients with T2DM in Saku, Japan. The associated factors included diabetes self-management and social support.

Methods: 307 patients with T2DM, aged 60 years and using oral hypoglycemic drugs were enrolled into the study at a private tertiary hospital in Saku, Japan. Data were collected in March 2019. A validated questionnaire was used to collect diabetes self-management and social support data. HbA1c < 7.0% was considered to be glycemic control.

Results: The mean HbA1c was 7.3%. Prevalence of glycemic control was 40.7%. Patients had adequate adherence to medication and hospital visits (94.8%), adequate physical activity (54.4%) and adequate dietary control (29.0%). Only 26.1% received high social support related to diabetes care from their families, friends or neighbors. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that a duration of diabetes 10 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.12–3.14) and having no diabetes complications (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.03–2.74) were significantly associated with glycemic control. However, diabetes self-management and social support were not significantly associated with glycemic control.

Conclusion: The prevalence of glycemic control, dietary control and high social supportwas low. Triggering factors of glycemic control should be taken into consideration by healthcare providers when targeting and designing interventions to achieve glycemic control. Further study using individualized glycemic targets based on patient-specific characteristics should be conducted.