Supplementary Material



Objectives: This study aimed to investigate whether exercise frequency at home during the COVID-19 epidemic is associated with worsening depression among community-dwelling older adults.

Methods: We conducted a questionnaire survey on 127 Japanese community-dwelling older adults in 2020. The questionnaire items included basic attributes, adherence to behaviors for COVID-19, changes in mental/physical conditions and frequency of home exercise during the restrictions on social participation for about 3.5 months.

Results: The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the worsening depression group was independently associated with physical fatigue (odds ratio [OR] = 4.50), appetite loss (OR = 7.80), poor sleep quality (OR = 3.48), good compliance with restrictions on going out (OR = 3.30), and poor exercise (OR = 2.61).

Discussion: Due to the influence of COVID-19, worsening depression has increased significantly among community-dwelling older adults. The frequency of exercise at home during restrictions on social participation due to the COVID-19 epidemic was associated with depression among Japanese community-dwelling older adults.