Supplementary Material

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Background: Recently, numerous studies on non-invasive neuro-feedback training for improving cognitive function have been explored to identify its feasibility. However, little is known about the clinical efficacy of functional near-infrared spectroscopy-based neuro-feedback (fNIRS-based NF) training in individuals with or without cognitive impairment.

Method: Studies on fNIRS-based NF training were searched through Embase, Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, PsychINFO, and Google scholar and then  four studies were finally selected. The overall cognitive domains, working memory, and executive function were separately pooled to investigate fNIRS-based NF training's effect size.

Results: The overall effect on cognitive outcomes across four studies was large (Hedges'g = 0.682, confidence interval (CI) = 0.079–1.285) without  publication bias. Moderate to large effects were found for working memory (Hedges'g = 1.143) and executive function (Hedges'g = 0.406) without publication bias. fNIRS-based NF training was beneficial in improving working memory and executive function.

Conclusion: Therefore, this finding shed new light on fNIRS-based NF training as a promising treatment for improving cognitive function.