Supplementary Material



Background: Both Flexi-Bar and Multi-Component exercises can improve an individual's physical fitness and musculoskeletal discomfort. However, determining which is more effective in enhancing the physical fitness, and musculoskeletal discomfort of older adults remains controversial.

Objective: This study aims to investigate differences in the effectiveness of Flexi-Bar and Multi-Component exercises in improving the frailty, physical fitness, and musculoskeletal discomfort of older adults after 12 weeks of intervention. Methods: A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted to collect data in central Taiwan. Participants were randomly assigned into a Flexi-Bar group (FB group) and a Multi-Component exercise group (MCE group). Participants in the FB group performed a 60-minute Flexi-Bar exercise every week for 12 consecutive weeks; participants in the MCE group performed a 60-minute Multi-Component exercise every week for 12 consecutive weeks. Before and after the intervention, the assessment was conducted using the Kihon Checklist, Senior Fitness Test, and Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire.

Results: A total of 80 participants (16 males) were recruited (age = 75.7 ± 7.3 years). The results showed that the improvements of the FB group participants in the 2-minute step test, back scratch test, and number of body parts with discomfort were more significant than those of the participants in the MCE group.

Conclusion: This study found that the cardiopulmonary function, upper body flexibility, and musculoskeletal discomfort of the FB group participants improved more significantly than those in the MCE group. This finding indicated that a Flexi-Bar exercise was a more effective intervention for older adults than a Multi-Component exercise.