Supplementary Material

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Background: Muscle atrophy and increased intramuscular fat (IMF) content in individuals with obesity have been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk but unknown in normal-weight individuals. We aimed to investigate the relationships between the vascular structure and function and body and thigh compositions among normal-weight men aged 50–79 years.

Methods: A total of 45 normal-weight middle-aged and older men were included herein and subsequently measured for mean carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in near and far walls, central systolic blood pressure, augmentation index at a heart rate of 75 bpm (AIx@75), mid-thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and IMF contents using magnetic resonance imaging, and body fat percentage via electrical impedance analysis.

Results: No difference in body or muscle composition was observed among the age groups. Near wall IMT was significantly positively correlated with IMF content among those in their 70s but not among those in their 50s and 60s. On the other hand, AIx@75 was strongly inversely correlated with muscle CSA per body weight, and positively correlated with body fat percentage among those in their 60s.

Conclusions: The findings presented herein suggested that muscle atrophy and increased body fat percentage could affect age-specific changes in vascular structure and function among normal-weight men in their 60s.