Supplementary Material

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The aim of this study was to clarify the association between physical and cognitive functions in older adults who converted froma robust health state to a pre-frailty in a one-year follow-up survey. A total of 82 participants were enrolled and classified by the Fried frailty index. The physical and cognitive functions of the participants were evaluated. Complete data samples were available for 35 participants, including 11 who remained robust and 24 who converted to a pre-frailty during the follow-up. Multiple regression analysiswas performed to examine the association between the change of the usualwalking speed (UWS) (±m/s) during the one-year observation period and the cognitive functions converted to a pre-frailty after one-year. The results revealed a significant association between the change of the UWS and the score forword list memory (WM) (p = 0.026). Our results suggest that decline of WM with much slower UWS might be associated with conversion to a pre-frailty.