Supplementary Material

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Aims: Alzheimer's disease (AD) has a complex neurodegenerative etiology and pathogenesis. In addition to oxidative stress, inflammation also plays an important role in the development of AD. In this study, we aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidation status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels in AD patients. We also planned to evaluate the relationship of OSI with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α).

Methods: A total of 33 subjects with AD (mean age 78.9 ± 7.8) and 33 subjects as control (mean age 72.3 ± 2.6)were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. TAS and TOSwere assessed with commercial kits using an autoanalyzer. TNF-α and IL-1β were measured with commercial ELISA kits.

Results: The AD group demonstrated significantly higher TNF-α, IL-1β, and TOS levels compared to the control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.029, p = 0.005). The mean TAS level was significantly lower in the AD group than in the control group (p = 0.007). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between TNF-α and ADL, IADL, MMSE (p = 0.001, p = 0.003, p = 0.003). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between IL-1β and AIDL, aswell as a positive correlation between IL-1β and GDS (p = 0.029, p = 0.016).

Conclusion: Our study contributes to the understanding of the situation by showing that the oxidative balance is impaired in favor of oxidants in AD. A negative correlation was found between functional capacity and TNF-α and IL-1β levels in AD patients. Different therapeutic interventions that reduce the oxidant load can be considered in the treatment of AD.