Supplementary Material

No data


Background: The purpose of this study was to measure the level of plantar pressure and depression in isolated older adults.We also proposed virtual reality program (VR) and motor imagery training (MIT) as interventions to prevent falls.

Methods: This study was conducted with 34 healthy older individuals admitted to a convalescent hospital. The participants were divided into three groups: virtual reality group (VRG), motor imagery training group (MIG), and control group (CG). The evaluation period was six weeks, after which an eightweek follow-up study was conducted. The Gaitview® AFA-50 system was used to measure the difference in the ratio between static plantar pressure and dynamic plantar pressure. The degree of depression was measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale.

Result: In the interaction between the group and period, there were significant differences in the left and right (L/R) static plantar pressure (p = .044), anterior and posterior (A/P) static plantar pressure (p = .000), L/R dynamic plantar pressure (p = .008), A/P dynamic plantar pressure (p = .031), and depression (p = .000). Unlike the VRG, there was no significant difference in the MIG in the comparison between the L/R static plantar pressure pre-test and post-test in time. However, compared to the post-test, follow-up showed significant results (d = -0.9, 95% CI, -1.8 to -0.1), confirming the positive effect (p < .05).

Conclusion: VR and MIT are effective in improving balance and depression in older individuals isolated from convalescent hospitals. Therefore, VR and MIT are recommended as alternatives to physical activity for isolated older individuals.