Supplementary Material



Objective: To explore the effects of 12-weeks of resistance exercise with instability (REI) and traditional resistance exercise (RE) as compared to a health education control (CON) on concerns about falling and depressive symptoms in older adults with self-reported cognitive complaints.

Methods: In this secondary analysis, 67 participants (aged between 65-88 years; 77% women) were randomized to either 12-weeks of thrice-weekly REI (n = 22) or RE (n = 23), or a once-weekly CON (n = 22) group. At each training session, RE and REI participants performed three sets and repetitions ranging between 10-15. REI group performed each exercise using instability devices. We measured falls self-efficacy index (FESI) and geriatric depression scale (GDS-15) at baseline and 12 weeks.

Results: Participants showed moderate levels of concerns about falling (mean = 26.3 ± 2.2) and no signs of depressive symptoms (mean = 2.6 ± 8.4) at baseline. At completion of trial, REI participants had fewer concerns about falls (-3.19, 95% CI: [-6.33; -0.05]). There were no changes in FESI for RE participants compared to CON (-0.89, 95% CI: [-3.99; 2.21]). Non-significant between-group differences were observed for mood after traditional RE and REI relative to the CON.

Conclusion: In older adults with cognitive complaints, 12-weeks of REI reduced concerns about falling but did not change depressive symptoms.