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Population aging may increase chronic disease prevalence in Japan without widespread health behavior change. Walking and sitting are common behaviors that are amenable to intervention. This study examined age-related variations in daily walking and sitting time among middle-aged and older Japanese who live in urban areas. An online survey including validated measures was administered with a representative sample of 4,000 middle-aged and older adults from five large cities. Walking time showed a significant association with age, and the oldest cohort walked 25% more per day compared to those in early middle age, F (3, 3996) = 8.04, p < .001. Sitting time showed a significant decline with age, F (3, 3996) = 3.83, p < .001, although gender differences were evident among the oldest cohorts. Early middle age (45–54 years) appears to be associated with less walking and more sitting time in Japan. This study has implications for healthy aging and successful transitions to retirement in Japan. Occupational and environmental interventions are recommended to facilitate increases in activity and reductions in sedentary behavior.