Supplementary Material

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Background: In terms of epidemiology and safety for older adults, self-reported questionnaires on activities of daily living, that is, screening tools are often applied as subjective measures, though objective measures provide concrete quantitative information of physical function through direct observation regardless of age. We aimed to clarify whether or not the screening tool for older adults at risk of dependency (SRD) utilized in Japan as subjective measures could predict objective measures on physical function among older adults.

Methods: The study was conducted with 81 community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years and over. They completed SRD as subjective measures and underwent physical performance battery (PPB) as objective measures. The association between SRD and PPB was statistically explored.

Results: SRD was significantly associated with one of the four domains in PPB; locomotion of the whole body, F(4, 73) = 8.04, p < .001. The significant predictors were falling experience, β = 0.25, t = 2.42, p= .018, and falling anxiety, β = 0.24, t = 2.27, p = .026, in SRD. The significant regression models explained 23% of the association.

Conclusions: The two questions of SRD could predict objective measures on locomotion of the whole body among older adults. SRD needs to be revised to ensure every aspect of activities of daily living, not only locomotion, also change of posture, manipulation of the upper limb, and manual dexterity. Selfreported questionnaires can be utilized to identify older adults at risk of dependency, only if with appropriate questions.