International Journal of Gerontology
Sarcopenia and Frailty in Elderly: Manifestations, Impacts on Diseases, and Management
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Aging population is frequently associated with a progressive function decline. Sarcopenia and frailty are common in elderly. Sarcopenia, defined by loss of muscle mass and strength and function, is a crucial driver for frailty. Sarcopenia can result from aging process, malnutrition, inactivity, and chronic diseases. Sarcopenia is highly prevalent in frail individuals. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome connected to adverse clinical outcomes. Frailty is associated with disability or increased mortality in elderly. Sarcopenia and frailty are prevalent in various diseases such as heart failure, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and critical illness. Adequate nutritional support with higher protein ingestion in addition to exercise are crucial to improve physical performance in sarcopenic or frail elderly.